Poetry of the Romantic Part 2 (Encased in Dust Book 3)

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This theme, representing God, the Son, the "kind Lord", has two bar phrases of staccato three-part chords in the galant style, with echo responses marked piano. This is followed by a more ornate syncopated version which is not further developed during the prelude:.


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This theme is a double fugue based on semiquavers, representing "the Holy Ghost, descending, flickering like tongues of fire. The older style two- or three-part writing forms a contrast to the harmonically more complex and modern writing of the first theme. The semiquaver subject of the fugue is adapted for the pedal in the traditional way using alternating foot technique:.

Anne" because of the first subject's resemblance to a hymn tune of the same name by William Croft , a tune that was not likely known to Bach. However, the second subject is not stated precisely within the third section, but only strongly suggested in bars 93, 99, , and The number three is pervasive in both the Prelude and the Fugue, and has been understood by many to represent the Trinity. The description of Albert Schweitzer follows the 19th-century tradition of associating the three sections with the three different parts of the Trinity.

Each of the three subjects seems to grow from the previous ones. Indeed, Hermann Keller has suggested that the second subject is "contained" in the first.

Although perhaps hidden in the score, this is more apparent to the listener, both in their shape and in the resemblance of the quaver second subject to crotchet figures in the countersubject to the first subject. Similarly, the semiquaver figures in the third subject can be traced back to the second subject and the countersubject of the first section.

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The form of the fugue conforms to that of a 17th-century tripartite ricercar or canzona , such as those of Froberger and Frescobaldi: firstly in the way that themes become progressively faster in successive sections; and secondly in the way one theme transforms into the next. The tempo transitions between different sections are natural: the minims of the first and second sections correspond to the dotted crotchets of the third.

Many commentators have remarked on similarities between the first subject and fugal themes by other composers. As an example of stile antico, it is more probably a generic theme, typical of the fuga grave subjects of the time: a "quiet 4 2 " time signature, rising fourths and a narrow melodic range. As Williams points out, the similarity to the subject of a fugue by Conrad Friedrich Hurlebusch , which Bach himself published in , might have been a deliberate attempt by Bach to blind his public with science.

Roger Wibberly [36] has shown that the foundation of all three fugue subjects, as well as of certain passages in the Prelude, may be found in the first four phrases of the chorale "O Herzensangst, O Bangigkeit". Rather, as the work progresses, the first subject is heard singing out through the others: sometimes hidden; sometimes, as in the second section, quietly in the alto and tenor voices; and finally, in the last section, high in the treble and, as the climactic close approaches, quasi-ostinato in the pedal, thundering out beneath the two sets of upper voices.

In the second section it is played against quavers; and in parts of the last, against running semiquaver passagework. As the fugue progresses, this creates what Williams has called the cumulative effect of a "mass choir".

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In later sections, to adapt to triple time, the first subject becomes rhythmically syncopated, resulting in what the music scholar Roger Bullivant has called "a degree of rhythmic complexity probably unparalleled in fugue of any period. The first section is a quiet 4 2 five-part fugue in the stile antico.

The countersubject is in crotchets. There are two stretto passages, the first in thirds below and the second in sixths. The second section is a four-part double fugue on a single manual. The second subject is in running quavers and starts on the second beat of the bar. The third section is a five-part double fugue for full organ. The preceding bar in the second section is played as three beats of one minim and thus provides the new pulse.

The third subject is lively and dancelike, resembling a gigue, again starting on the second beat of the bar. The characteristic motif of 4 semiquavers in the third beat has already been heard in the countersubject of the first section and in the second subject. The running semiquaver passagework is an accelerated continuation of the quaver passagework of the second section; occasionally it incorporates motifs from the second section.

At bar 88, the third subject merges into the first subject in the soprano line, although not fully apparent to the ear. Bach with great originality does not change the rhythm of the first subject, so that it becomes syncopated across bars. The subject is then passed to an inner part where it at last establishes its natural pairing with the third subject: two entries of the third exactly match a single entry of the first.

Apart from a final statement of the third subject in the pedal and lower manual register in thirds, there are four quasi-ostinato pedal statements of the first subject, recalling the stile antico pedal part of the first section. Above the pedal the third subject and its semiquaver countersubject are developed with increasing expansiveness and continuity.

The penultimate entry of the first subject is a canon between the soaring treble part and the pedal, with descending semiquaver scales in the inner parts. There is a climactic point at bar —the second bar below—with the final resounding entry of the first subject in the pedal.

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It brings the work to its brilliant conclusion, with a unique combination of the backward looking stile antico in the pedal and the forward looking stile moderno in the upper parts. As Williams comments, this is "the grandest ending to any fugue in music.


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  • In , Martin Luther published his Deutsche Messe , describing how the mass could be conducted using congregational hymns in the German vernacular, intended in particular for use in small towns and villages where Latin was not spoken. Over the next thirty years numerous vernacular hymnbooks were published all over Germany, often in consultation with Luther, Justus Jonas , Philipp Melanchthon and other figures of the German Reformation. The Naumburg hymnbook, drawn up by Nikolaus Medler, contains the opening Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit , one of several Lutheran adaptations of the troped Kyrie summum bonum: Kyrie fons bonitatus.

    The first Deutsche Messe in was held at Advent so did not contain the Gloria , explaining its absence in Luther's text the following year. A century later, Lutheran liturgical texts and hymnody were in wide circulation. Luther was a firm advocate of the use of the arts, particularly music, in worship. He sang in the choir of the Georgenkirche in Eisenach , where Bach's uncle Johann Christoph Bach was later organist, his father Johann Ambrosius Bach one of the main musicians and where Bach himself would sing, a pupil at the same Latin school as Luther between and The Kyrie was usually sung in Leipzig on Sundays after the opening organ prelude.

    Bach's three monumental pedaliter settings of the Kyrie correspond to the three verses. They are in strict counterpoint in the stile antico of Frescobaldi's Fiori Musicali. All three have portions of the same melody as their cantus firmus — in the soprano voice for "God the Father", in the middle tenor voice en taille for "God the Son" and in the pedal bass for "God the Holy Ghost". Although having features in common with Bach's vocal settings of the Kyrie , for example in his Missa in F major , BWV , the highly original musical style is tailored to organ technique, varying with each of the three chorale preludes.

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    Nevertheless, as in other high-church settings of plainsong, Bach's writing remains "grounded in the unchangeable rules of harmony", as described in Fux's treatise on counterpoint, Gradus ad Parnassum. As Williams observes, "Common to all three movements is a certain seamless motion that rarely leads to full cadences or sequential repetition, both of which would be more diatonic than suits the desired transcendental style. Below is the text of the three verses of Luther's version of the Kyrie with the English translation of Charles Sanford Terry : [40].

    O Lord the Father for evermore! We Thy wondrous grace adore; We confess Thy power, all worlds upholding. Have mercy, Lord. Son of God! Our Redeemer! Lord, to Thee alone in our need we cry, Have mercy, Lord. Holy Lord, God the Holy Ghost!

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    Who of life and light the fountain art, With faith sustain our heart, That at the last we hence in peace depart. BWV is a chorale motet for two manuals and pedal in 4 2 time. The four lines of the cantus firmus in the phrygian mode of G are played in the top soprano part on one manual in semibreve beats. The single fugal theme of the other three parts, two in the second manual and one in the pedal, is in minim beats and based on the first two lines of the cantus firmus.

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    Even when playing beneath the cantus firmus , the contrapuntal writing is quite elaborate. The many stile antico features include inversions, suspensions, strettos, use of dactyls and the canone sine pausa at the close, where the subject is developed without break in parallel thirds. Like the cantus firmus , the parts move in steps, creating an effortless smoothness in the chorale prelude. The four lines of the cantus firmus in the phrygian mode of G are played in the tenor part en taille on one manual in semibreve beats.

    As in BWV , the single fugal theme of the other three parts, two in the second manual and one in the pedal, is in minim beats and based on the first two lines of the cantus firmus. The writing is again mostly modal, in alla breve strict counterpoint with similar stile antico features and a resulting smoothness. In this case, however, there are fewer inversions, the cantus firmus phrases are longer and freer, and the other parts more widely spaced, with canone sine pausa passages in sixths.

    BWV is a chorale motet for organum plenum and pedal.

    The bass cantus firmus is in semibreves in the pedal with four parts above in the keyboard: tenor, alto and, exceptionally, two soprano parts, creating a unique texture. The subject of the four-part fugue in the manuals is derived from the first two lines of the cantus firmus and is answered by its inversion, typical of the stile antico.

    The quaver motifs in ascending and descending sequences, starting with dactyl figures and becoming increasingly continuous, swirling and scalelike, are a departure from the previous chorale preludes. Among the stile antico features are movement in steps and syncopation. Any tendency for the modal key to become diatonic is counteracted by the chromaticism of the final section where the flowing quavers come to a sudden end.

    Over the final line of the cantus firmus , the crotchet figures drop successively by semitones with dramatic and unexpected dissonances, recalling a similar but less extended passage at the end of the five-part chorale prelude O lux beata of Matthias Weckmann. As Williams suggests, the twelve descending chromatic steps seem like supplications, repeated cries of eleison —"have mercy".

    The three manualiter chorale preludes BWV — are short fugal compositions within the tradition of the chorale fughetta, a form derived from the chorale motet in common use in Central Germany. Johann Christoph Bach , Bach's uncle and organist at Eisenach , produced 44 such fughettas. The brevity of the fughettas is thought to have been dictated by space limitations: they were added to the manuscript at a very late stage in to fill space between already engraved pedaliter settings. Despite their length and conciseness, the fughettas are all highly unconventional, original and smoothly flowing, sometimes with an other-worldly sweetness.

    As freely composed chorale preludes, the fugue subjects and motifs are based loosely on the beginning of each line of the cantus firmus , which otherwise does not figure directly. The motifs themselves are developed independently with the subtlety and inventiveness typical of Bach's later contrapuntal writing.

    Butt has suggested that the set might have been inspired by the cycle of five manualiter settings of " Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland " in Harmonische Seelenlust , published by his contemporary Georg Friedrich Kauffmann in BWV and employ similar rhythms and motifs to two of Kauffmann's chorale preludes. The Kyries seem to have been conceived as a set, in conformity with the symbolism of the Trinity. This is reflected in the contrasting time signatures of 3 4 , 6 8 and 9 8. They are also linked harmonically: all start in a major key and move to a minor key before the final cadence; the top part of each fughetta ends on a different note of the E major triad; and there is a matching between closing and beginning notes of successive pieces.

    What Williams has called the "new, transcendental quality" of these chorale fughettas is due in part to the modal writing. The cantus firmus in the phrygian mode of E is ill-suited to the standard methods of counterpoint, since entries of the subject in the dominant are precluded by the mode. This compositional problem, exacerbated by the choice of notes on which the pieces start and finish, was solved by Bach by having other keys as the dominating keys in each fughetta. This was a departure from established conventions for counterpoint in the phrygian mode, dating back to the midth century ricercar from the time of Palestrina.

    As Bach's pupil Johann Kirnberger later remarked in , "the great man departs from the rule in order to sustain good part-writing.

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